Endocrinology and Diabetes

Endocrinology and Diabetes

People mostly suffer from endocrine disorders when their endocrine system does not perform properly, these include receptors that respond to hormones, organs that are directly impacted by hormones, and glands that secret hormones. Dysfunction takes place at any one of these points, and thereafter it starts affecting the body severely. 

Some of the very common types of endocrine disorders are- 

  • Cancers of the endocrine glands 
  • Addison’s disease 
  • Graves’ disease 
  • Hashimoto thyroiditis 
  • Hyperthyroidism/hypothyroidism 
  • Prolactinoma 
  • Diabetes
  • Menopause  
  • Cushing’s disease 

What are the causes of Endocrine Disorder? 

The endocrine disorder occurs due to a hormone imbalance, it’s a condition characterized by a gland that generates very much or very less of a hormone. The main cause of imbalance can be due to problems with the endocrine’s feedback system, its main motive is to keep hormones perfectly balanced, however, it can malfunction, and eventually cause imbalance

  • Infection or disease
  • A genetic disorder
  • Injury to an endocrine gland

Another cause of endocrine complications includes nodules or tumors growing in the endocrine system, but it's less possible for an endocrine nodule or lump to be cancerous and transfer to another part of the body, moreover it can disturb the endocrine system’s hormone production. 

What are the symptoms of an Endocrine Disorder?

Some of the many common symptoms found in many people include- 

  • Weakness
  • Fatigue
  • Mood Swings
  • Changes in cholesterol levels or blood glucose levels
  • Unintended weight fluctuations

Endocrinology is a complex study of the various hormones and their actions and disorders in the body. Glands are organs that make hormones. These are substances that help to control activities in the body and have several effects on metabolism, reproduction, food absorption and utilization, growth and development, etc.

Hormones also control the way an organism responds to its surroundings and help by providing adequate energy for various functions.

The glands that make up the endocrine system include the pineal, hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, thymus, adrenals, pancreas, ovaries, and testes.

Who is an endocrinologist?

An endocrinologist is a specially trained doctor who has basic training in Internal Medicine as well.

Some disorders like low thyroid hormone production or hypothyroidism deal only with an endocrine organ and an endocrinologist alone may detect, diagnose and manage such patients.

Yet other disorders may have endocrine as well and other origins like infertility and may need a deeper understanding of medicine on the part of the endocrinologist to identify and work in collaboration with another specialist (a gynecologist in cases of infertility).

Training for endocrinologists

Endocrinologists need four years of medical school and then spend three or four years in an internship and residency program. They cover internal medicine, pediatrics, obstetrics, and gynecology during this time.

Thereafter they spend two or three more years learning how to diagnose and treat hormone conditions.

Core training requires knowledge of the normal physiology of the endocrine system, including the physiology and biochemistry of hormones, and their actions. Extensive first-hand practical experience in a recognized training center, in the management of diseases primarily involving the endocrine system, follows.

What do endocrinologists do?

Endocrinologists have the training to diagnose and treat hormone imbalances and problems by helping to restore the normal balance of hormones in the body. The common diseases and disorders of the endocrine system that endocrinologists deal with include diabetes mellitus and thyroid disorders.

Diabetes mellitus:

This is one of the most common conditions seen by endocrinologists. This results due to inadequate insulin hormone secreted by the pancreas leading to excess blood sugar that damages various organs.

Endocrinologists treat diabetes with diet and blood sugar-reducing medications, including insulin. They also work closely with patients to control blood sugar and monitor them so they can prevent health problems.

Thyroid disorders:

This could be an overactive thyroid or hyperthyroidism or underactive thyroid or hypothyroidism.

Endocrinologists treat patients to reach a hormone balance by replacing or blocking thyroid hormones depending on whether there is hypo or hyperthyroidism.

Other common diseases and disorders that endocrinologists manage

  • Metabolic diseases
  • Menopause and its hormonal unbalances
  • Over- or underproduction of hormones
  • Osteoporosis and vitamin D deficiency leading to osteomalacia and rickets in children
  • Infertility
  • Precocious puberty
  • Lack of growth (short stature)
  • Pediatric endocrine diseases
  • Excessive growth or acromegaly/gigantism
  • Cancers of the endocrine glands
  • High blood pressure due to endocrine dysfunctions like adrenal gland tumors pheochromocytoma
  • High blood cholesterol or lipid abnormalities associated with heart disease

Diabetes specialism

Those training to further specialize in diabetes need experience in the eye, blood vessel, and kidney diseases associated with diabetes. They need to train in diabetic foot care to prevent gangrene of diabetic foot and amputation of the limbs.

Special training in managing pregnant women, children, and adolescents with diabetes and care of diabetic patients undergoing surgery is needed.

Diabetes education, diet advice, and exercise regimens for the general masses are also a part of the training. They need to identify and treat obesity and anorexia nervosa, lipid disorders, metabolic bone disease and calcium disorders, and fluid and electrolyte disorders.

There is an increasing proliferation of tests and new therapeutic procedures. Thus, the endocrinologist often has an important role in defining the most efficient and cost-effective strategy for their use of inpatient care. To the practicing endocrinologist, laboratory measurement of circulating hormone levels is crucial. Training should therefore include practical experience in an endocrine laboratory. An endocrinologist has access to an up-to-date hormone assay
service.

Multidisciplinary training

Several areas need to be accessible in the training of endocrinologists. These include:

Growth disorders, and disorders of stature with pediatric endocrinologists Reproductive endocrinology with gynecologists in development of the understanding of an endocrine basis of infertility with the use of gonadotrophic stimulation therapy and assisted reproduction Surgical endocrinology for management of pituitary, thyroid, and adrenal tumors operatively With radiologists, radiotherapists, and nuclear medicine specialists for diagnostic and therapeutic uses and imaging techniques relevant to endocrinology, such as ultrasound With oncologists for cancers of the endocrine system Organizations for endocrinologists.

Why Jeevan Rekha Hospital is known as one of the best Endocrinology Hospital in Jaipur? 

Diagnosing an endocrine disorder is a complicated process, as its structure is interconnected and controls various body functions including, metabolism, growth, and reproduction, however, our endocrinologist knows how to skilfully ace any disorder, no matter how complicated it appears. The various testing recommended by our specialist to confirm a diagnosis, include- 

  • Fine needle aspiration
  • Computerized tomography scan
  • Ultrasound 
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan 
  • Positron emission test (PET) scan
  • Blood Testing

Our team of experts offers world-class treatment for endocrine complications. Treatment by our specialists depends on the type of disorder the patient has. Treatment includes:

  • Medication to rebalance hormones and treat symptoms 
  • Surgery to remove a tumor on a gland that is affecting hormone production
  • Chemotherapy or radiation therapy for patients with cancerous tumors of the endocrine gland 
Consultants

Department Consultants

FAQs

Frequently Asked Questions

Pituitary tumors and tumors of the adrenal glands can be surgically curable. Cancers of the testes are often curable with surgery, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy. Other common endocrine problems can’t be cured, however, can be effectively treated with medication or lifestyle changes.

  • Engage in regular exercise.
  • Eat enough protein at every meal.  
  • Maintain a moderate weight. 
  • Take care of your gut health. 
  • Lower your sugar intake. 
  • Try stress-reduction techniques. 
  • Consume healthy fats.  
  • Get consistent, high-quality sleep. 
  • Maintain a healthy weight. Eat healthy foods and go for plenty of exercises. 
  • Include iodine in your diet which helps to prevent thyroid problems. 
  • Make sure all your doctors are aware of any hormones you're consuming.

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