Many countries have reported monkeypox cases this month (May 2022). European and North American populations are rapidly being infected with the virus. During the first week of May, the UK reported 20 cases of the rare virus.
The WHO has received reports of monkeypox cases from 12 countries that are not endemic for the virus since 13 May 2022.
Monkeypox was the subject of an emergency meeting on Monkeypox held by the World Health Organization (WHO) to discuss its transmission and vaccines.
Monkeypox disease is caused by the monkeypox virus. There is a rash and flu-like symptoms associated with it. It belongs to the orthopoxvirus family, like the better-known virus that causes smallpox.
The monkeypox disease was first discovered in 1958 after two outbreaks occurred in research monkeys. Humans and rodents are the main sources of transmission, but it can sometimes be spread via skin-to-skin contact as well. The monkeypox virus has two known types (clades) - one that comes from Central Africa and one that comes from West Africa.
Poxviridae is a family of viruses characterized by double-stranded DNA, which causes monkeypox. The CDC reports that the virus is closely related to other 'pox' viruses, including:
The virus was first discovered in captive monkeys and is primarily found in tropical rainforest areas of West and Central Africa. The virus has two subtypes that correspond to the two geographical regions: the Congo Basin and West African clades.
The virus was discovered in monkeys, African squirrels, Gambian pouched rats, and humans. The consumption of these animals as food may be a significant source of transmission to people.
Monkeypox symptoms resemble smallpox signs and symptoms. Monkeypox usually has milder symptoms.
It usually takes between 6 and 13 days after monkeypox virus infection for symptoms to manifestTrusted Source. But it can be anywhere between five and twenty-one days.
The early symptoms can include:
A rash typically develops one to three days after the fever does. Usually, the rash appears on your:
The appearance of a rash can precede or follow fever and other flu-like symptoms. Some individuals might only get a rash. Lesions that develop in the following order make up the rash brought on by monkeypox:
Lesions fall off after they have healed and developed a scab. Monkeypox symptoms typically last 2 to 4 weeks and go away on their own without medical intervention.
Monkeypox can result in secondary infections such as sepsis, bronchopneumonia, encephalitis, and corneal diseases that can lead to blindness. Birth defects or stillbirths may happen if an infection occurs during pregnancy.
People who were vaccinated against smallpox as children may experience milder diseases. Recall that there is currently no vaccine against smallpox or monkeypox that is safe to use while pregnant.
Monkeypox is a rare viral infection. The risk factors include:
A person, animal, or piece of equipment can spread the virus. You can stop the spread of the disease by following the following advice.
Close contact with an animal or human who has the disease, as well as contact with contaminated objects, are the two main ways to contract monkeypox.
An infected person can spread monkeypox to another by:
Animal-to-human transmission was previously uncommon outside of Africa and typically began when an infected animal was imported and infected local animals. Some wild animals in Africa, including rodents like rats or squirrels, may carry the monkeypox virus.
Monkeypox can be contracted by animals and transmitted to humans by:
Due to the rarity of the condition, your doctor may initially suspect measles, chickenpox, small, pox, or another rash-causing illness. The main feature that sets Monkeypox apart from other poxes, though, is swollen lymph nodes (lymphadenopathy).
A tissue sample from an infected person's open lesion (sore) is taken by the healthcare professional to diagnose monkeypox, and it is safely transported (following national and international requirements) to a laboratory with the necessary tools.
The most preferred laboratory test is the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), due to its sensitivity and accuracy. The affected person may then be asked to provide a blood sample so that the monkeypox virus or antibodies that their immune system produces can be detected.
Following are the basic treatments included in the treatment of monkeypox.
It is important to determine where skin lesions are located before managing them.
Dehydration can happen when a person cannot eat because of a general feeling of being unwell, a fever, a headache, or other symptoms. Your doctor might advise drinking more water and using an oral rehydration solution (ORS). In addition, you should try eating wholesome foods to promote a speedy recovery.
4. Symptomatic treatment